Data Science and Machine Learning Essentials – Module1- Classification

by Fuyang

Classification and Loss Function

  • For a classification function to work accurately, when operating on the data in the training and test datasets, the number of times that the sign of f(x) does not equal y must be minimized. In other words, for a single entity, if y is positive, f(x) should be positive; and if y is negative, f(x) should be negative. Formally, we need to minimize cases where y ≠ sign(f(x)) to let the classification function to work accurately.loss function
  • Because same-signed numbers when multiplied together always produce a positive, and numbers of different signs multiplied together always produce a negative, we can simplify our goal to minimize cases where yf(x) < 0; or for the whole data set iyif(xi) < 0. This general approach is known as a loss function.
  • As with regression algorithms, some classification algorithms add a regularization term to avoid over-fitting so that the function achieves a balance of accuracy and simplicity (Occam’s Razor again).loss function 2
  • Each classification algorithm (for example AdaBoost, Support Vector Machines, and Logistic Regression) uses a specific loss function implementation, and it’s this that distinguishes classification algorithms from one another.

Decision Trees and Multi-Class ClassificationDecision Trees

  • Decision Trees are classification algorithms that define a sequence of branches. At each branch intersection, the feature value (x) is compared to a specific function, and the result determines which branch the algorithm follows. All branches eventually lead to a predicted value (-1 or +1). Most decision trees algorithms have been around for a while, and many produce low accuracy. However, boosted decision trees (AdaBoost applied to a decision tree) can be very effective.
  • You can use a “one vs. all” technique to extend binary classification (which predicts a Boolean value) so that it can be used in multi-class classification. This approach involves applying multiple binary classifications (for example, “is this a chair?”, “is this a bird?”, and so on) and reviewing the results produced by f(x) for each test. Since f(x) produces a numeric result, the predicted value is a measure of confidence in the prediction (so for example, a high positive result for “is this a chair?” combined with a low positive result for “is this a bird?” and a high negative result for “is this an elephant?” indicates a high degree of confidence that the object is more likely to be a chair than a bird, and very unlikely to be an elephant.)

Imbalanced Data

  • When the training data is imbalanced (so a high proportion of the data has the same True/False value for y) , the accuracy of the classification algorithm can be compromised. To overcome this problem, you can “over-sample” or “weight” data with the minority y value to balance the algorithm.ROC

ROC – Receiver Operator Characteristic

  • The quality of a classification model can be assessed by plotting the True Positive Rate (predicted positives / actual positives) against the False Positive Rate (predicted negatives / actual negatives) for various parameter values on a chart to create a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve. The quality of the model is reflected in the area under the curve (AOC). The larger this area is than the area under a straight diagonal line (representing a 50% accuracy rate that can be achieved purely by guessing), the better the model; as shown below: